Tag Archives: Lua

Tutu Naluahine Ka‘opua

8 Oct

Naluahine Kekaaweokaahumanu Ka‘opua

There is a famous photo of the fabled Tutu Naluahine photographed by renowned photographer Ansel Adams during his visit to Kona in 1957-1958.  Another later photo of Tutu Naluahine was displayed in the now demolished Keauhou Beach Resort Hotel which closed in 2012. A wealth of knowledge on so many subjects he was often sought for his wisdom and counsel. As a native resident of the Kahalu‘u area, Tutu was descended from the line of La-na‘i, who was the last formal priest of Ka-pua-noni Heiau.  Naluahine held many titles of expertise:

  • cowboy
  • kahuna la‘au lapa‘au
  • lua master

Tutu Naluahine Ka‘opua was born July 4, 1857/1860, died April 13, 1961 at Kahalu‘u, Hawaii Island. He lived off of Makolea Beach Road near the Lonoikamakahiki’s Sacred Residence (shown in the Henry Kekahuna map). As a young man — he was part of a collective which formed the Ahahui Kalepa of Helani a business in N. Kona (1883). His wife Lucy (KAUALE) whom he married around 1895 preceded him in death in the 1950s and is buried with Tutu Naluahine in the unkept graveyard of Helani Makai, across the street from Kahalu‘u Bay.

Screen Shot 2017-09-28 at 3.11.48 PM

1957-1958 Naluahine Kaopua, Kona Coast, Hawaii
[front view, close-up] by Ansel Adams 84.89.28 

KUPA ʻAI AU

Despite having only completed 2nd grade, Naluahine was a man of extreme intellect and knowledge having practiced the oral tradition of history of Hawaiians.  In the late 1940s, early 1950s, Theodore Kelsey and Henry E.P. Kekahuna (his nephew), both of whom did occasional work with Bishop Museum, and much more work on their own, mapped and recorded sites and histories in Kona. One of their main native guides and informants was an “elderly Hawaiian gentleman” by the name of Näluahine Ka‘öpua (Naluahine); through their efforts, a great resource of information was compiled. An excellent recap was published by the Kohala Center.

Mr. Naluahine Kaopua speaks of this rock [The Kaʻahumanu Stone] and Kaʻahumanu’s hiding in an interview he did with Dr. Emory of the Bishop Museum in 1956. Naluahine was thought to be 100 years old (perhaps older) at the time the interview took place. He was a kupa ʻai au (knowledgeable, long-time resident) of the Kona region being born in Kahaluʻu, North Kona around 1857 -1860.
Naluahine was the uncle and one of the main informants of renowned map surveyor, Henry Enoka Palenapa Kekahuna. It was Naluahine’s intimate knowledge of the lands of Hawaiʻi Island that allowed Kekahuna to produce some of the most informative survey maps that are of tremendous cultural value and importance.
[Bishop Museum Archives. HAW 66.1 – 66.2, Audio Collections: Interviews.]

LONGEVITY

Naluahine’s age has been greatly debated — it is widely accepted that he was indeed a centenarian, but when did he reach 100?  If the 1959 article below is right, then his birthdate should be 1857 instead of 1860 but many sources use the 1860 date. The 1860 date can further be debunked since his half brother David Kewiki Spalding was born in October 1860 and it just isn’t possible for their mother Mary Ann Namaielua to have given birth in both July 1860 and October 1860. And in fact, each Census between 1910 and 1940 has he and his wife Lucy at different non-corresponding ages.

Police officers drove Naluahine, a 102-year-old resident of Kona, on the 3 1/2-hour journey to Kapoho to make an appeal to Pele. With the aid of crutches, the old man reached the lava flow and recited a prayer. Then, folding two dollar bills reverently, he tossed them on the lava. According to witnesses, the flow divided around the bills. Although Naluahine continued to pray for three-quarters of an hour, the money failed to ignite. But when Naluahine said in Hawaiian, “I guess Pele is really angry and will not accept my offering,” the bills caught fire. Naluahine seemed gratified and the residents relieved. (Source: http://vhca.info/1959.htm)

PANIOLO

Naluahine is listed as a Laborer of Odd Jobs in earlier census records and it is not until 1930 that he is listed as a cowboy on a cattle ranch.  This could be attributed to his ability to be a “jack of all trades” as an accomplished sailor, skilled at fishing, herbal healing, and other talents.  But it is undeniable that his skill as a Paniolo continued into his twilight years.

IN MEMORY OF
Naluahine Kaopua
1857 – 1961
Thomas White Ranch,
Wall Ranch, Hawai‘i
Born at Kahalu‘u, North Kona, Naluahine Kaopua was known as the man to beat in saddle bronc contests in the early 1900’s. He was a familiar presence at such events throughout the Territory of Hawai‘i. His greatest triumph occurred at Mo‘ili‘ili on O‘ahu. He competed against all comers, including professional riders from the mainland. Naluahine’s winning ride did not end in eight seconds. Failing to unseat Naluahine, the bronc jumped over the arena fence and took off down King Street. Naluahine finally brought the animal under control at Thomas Square. For this feat he was acclaimed Mohopuni O Hawai‘i Nei (Champion of Hawai‘i).
Naluahine’s association with the Walls began in the 1890’s when Allen Wall was the Manager of Shipman’s Meat Market in Hilo. Naluahine was Allen’s contact in Kona to organize a crew to trail cattle across Ka‘u to the slaughterhouse at Kea‘au. As a young man, Naluahine contracted with several ranches for moving their cattle. Later he would work exclusively for Thomas White and Wall Ranch.
Naluahine was descended from bird catchers and was knowledgeable of old trails, waterholes and ahupua‘a boundaries. Although illiterate, his was a superior intellect and he retained knowledge passed down in the oral tradition of traditional Hawai‘i. Respected as a cultural resource, he was consulted by academics and historians of his time. Recently at the Kona Historical Society there has cropped up new interest in Naluahine Kaopua for his cultural contributions in the last half of his life. Writings of present day Hawaiian scholars describe Naluahine as a sailor, a fisherman or a Kahuna lapa‘au (medicine man). He may have been all of those things at one time or another but he was first and foremost a paniolo. He continued riding horses to help with ranch work until in his eighties. He lived to the age of 104.
Source: http://www.hicattle.org/CMDocs/HawaiiCattle/PHOF/2011/Naluahine%20Kaopua%20bio%20formatted.pdf
LA‘AU LAPA‘AU
Naluahine’s great-granduncle Naihe of Kohala married Ka‘aha‘aina‘akahaku who was of the Ho‘a ‘ohana.  She was a renowned and respected healer and master of La‘au Lapa‘au among other cultural talents.  It is very possible that she was a contemporary and one source of his learning and was also a centenarian.
Naluahine was credited as one of the expert contributors in the standard primer on Hawaiian herbal medicine, Kahuna La’au Lapa’au: The Practice of Hawaiian Herbal Medicine by June Gutmanis (Hawaiian Bicentennial Library).

WAIWAIOLE_VioletThis is where my connection is rooted…  and our mystery ensues.  There is a handwritten note my mom jotted down as told to her by her maternal grandmother Violet Keawe Hii Ku o Kalai Jennie KAUHANE (pictured right) born October 11, 1896 in North Kahalu‘u who married Elia Kala Waiwaiole. She was known by many as “Keawe.”

Her father (or at least the man who raised her as his own) we had always believed to be John Napua Kauhane married to Mary Kalauwalu KAIPO.  John Napua Kauhane became a patient at Kalaupapa in December 7, 1897 and  where he later died July 21, 1900.  But the mystery note implies a very different parentage – Tutu Naluahine Ka‘opua.  And if so, then he is my true 2xGreat-Grandfather. The family resemblance is uncanny. [Keawe would have been conceived in early part of 1896 which would be just before or around the time Naluahine married Lucy and also possibly when John Napua Kauhane was falling ill.] But in the Hawaiian tradition they are all my ‘ohana.
Me > Sherry Leialoha Whitfield Fernandez (my mother) > Julia Elia Waiwaiole Whitfield (her mother) > Violet Keawe Hii Ku o Kalai Jennie Kauhane (her mother) > STEPDAD?: John Napua Kauhane / FATHER?: Naluahine K. Ka‘opua (her father)
kaopua_naluahine-note-jenny-father.jpg
LUA MASTER
In the years following Hawaii’s contact with the West and the catastrophic decline of Hawaiian population and culture that followed, lua was banned along with hula and other native practices. The underground tradition was secreted away to a few families. By 1974, the Bishop Museum had classified lua as a “lost art.”
Naluahine’s great-grandfather Lana‘i was also known as Kahinu.  He stood more than 7 feet tall and was a skilled lua master.  His nickname was because he would oil his body for fighting with coconut oil.  He was a messenger for Kamehameha I attending to his garments and armor.
Naluahine is also believed to have passed the ancient art of Lua down to hapa-haole writer Charles W. Kenn, who lived on Kahuna Lane in Mo‘ili‘ili. Kenn’s credentials read as such: “Charles W. Kenn. A Hawaiian-Japanese-German kahuna (expert or priest) born in 1907, Kenn was also a social historian, professor and author who was highly accomplished in a variety of martial arts, including lua. Kenn learned lua from several teachers—including two who had trained at a royal lua school established by King Kalakaua in the late 1800s. He also studied with renowned sensei Seishiro “Henry” Okazaki, who had learned lua ai from a Hawaiian practitioner after World War I and incorporated them into his Danzan-Ryu style of jujitsu.” Source: Hana Hou Magazine, Vol 6 Issue 2 April/May 2003
on March 23, 2014
The preservation of the ancient art of lua can be attributed to a martial arts student who happened upon an article in a martial arts magazine. Jerry Walker, a Native Hawaiian who grew up in Kailua, Oahu, was intrigued by the 1966 piece in Black Belt Magazine written by Charles W. Kenn. But Walker, an avid student of martial arts, was too busy at the time to pursue the lead and instead tucked the information into the back of his mind as he tended to school and began a family. However, he remained interested in lua, learning over the years that Kenn was living in a high rise in the Moiliili section of Honolulu. Finally, in 1974, a mutual friend arranged a meeting for Walker with the “olohe lua,” or lua expert. For centuries, an elite class of Hawaiian warriors had practiced the art of lua under a veil of secrecy. They were as expert, renowned and revered as the military special forces of today. Kenn had learned lua sometime in the first half of the 20th Century from Naluahine Kaopua, a respected Kona man whom some describe as a kahuna, and Henry Seishiro Okazaki, an eminent therapist and martial arts expert who likely combined the tenets of lua, traditional jujitsu and other martial arts to create “danzan ryu,” the most common style of jujitsu in the United States today. But even by the late 1950s, [NOTE: Ka‘opua died in 1961 – the writer Robert Command was in error] both Kaopua and Okazaki were dead, leaving Kenn, living in a non-descript one-bedroom condo, as the only one left with the knowledge. Perhaps recognizing his own mortality and the sincerity of Walker, Kenn agreed to teach what he knew to 12 students who would commit to the years of training necessary to master the martial art. The obligation was rigorous, and the “haumana,” or students, dwindled. But it was through this handful of kanaka maoli — Richard Kekumuikawaiokeola Paglinawan, Mitchell Eli, Moses Elwood Kalauokalani and Jerry Walker — that the ancient and once secret art of lua was preserved. Now they take the responsibility of passing on the knowledge to future generations in “Lua: Art of the Hawaiian Warrior,” essentially an introductory text offering the history, philosophy, techniques, weapons and current training practices of the Hawaiian fighting art. In addition to being an essential resource for martial arts and practitioners, “Lua” also is valuable to students of Hawaiian history and culture, and to the modern Hawaiian man, whose traditional role as a warrior was been lost in modern times. But beware: Lua is graphic, with crippling or even fatal blows diagrammed in drawings. The construction of weapons, particularly the “leiomano,” or shark-tooth-studded club, are also detailed in the book.
‘OHANA
Naluahine’s parents according to a submitted genealogy at Familysearch.org says:
Father — Ka‘opua Kaikihookama/ Keikihookama b. 1830
Mother — Mary Ann Kealohapauole NAMAIELUA b. 1832
  Children:
   1. Naluahine Ka‘opua b. 1857
   2. Kaolelo Ka‘opua b. 1862
   3. Ikaaka Ka‘opua b. 1868
   4. Kaikihookama/Keikihookama Ka‘opua b. 1870
   5. Isaac Kaolelo Ka‘opua b. 1877 d. 1931
   6. John Naihe Ka‘opua b. 1879
Mary Ann Namaielua had two children also with  George Henry Spalding b. 1819 d. 1908
Her parents were father Nanai NAMAIELUA and mother Kinau PEHU.  Source contributor noted Namaielua and Spalding were never married.
Children:
  1. George Henry later went by Henry George Spalding b. July 4, 1856 d. 1932
“Find A Grave Index,” database, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QK1K-1D5Z : 15 December 2015), Henry George Spalding, 1932; Burial, Koloa, Kauai, Hawaii, United States of America, Saint Raphael’s Church Cemetery; citing record ID 144301739, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.
  2. David Kewiki Spalding b. October 1860
“Find A Grave Index,” database, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QV26-3RNT : 13 December 2015), David Kewiki Spalding, 1912; Burial, , Hawaii, Hawaii, United States of America, Haile Kulamananu; citing record ID 70755084, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.
Ka‘opua Kaikihookama/ Keikihookama b. 1830 may have had a second marriage with Honuaiwa of S. Kona and had at least one child: Bowman Ka‘opua.  Other names connected to Honuaiwa include – Bapa Paul Ka‘opua? b. 1878, Maiau b. 1886 and Halou b. 1889.
His parents were father Kaikihookama/ Keikihookama KAHILINA b. 1804 and mother Puaana/ Ponaanaa b. 1806.
Keikihookama in the news:
Fifty-nine kuleana or commoner claims were awarded within Kahalu‘u, including seven within the archaeological survey project area: LCA 5632 to Keikihookama.
Oct. 5, 1885 The King vs. Keikihookama, embezzlement. Defendant is arraigned on the indictment and pleads not guilty.
Oct. 6, 1885 Keikihookama, for embezzlement, found guilty by a Hawaiian jury and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment.  Source: The Daily Bulletin p.3 https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10524/15127/1/1885100601.pdf

1900 Census of District 103 N. Kona
As of this writing – I still haven’t found Tutu Naluahine in the 1900 Census. Have page-by-page searched the N. Kona rolls and will continue.
1910 Census of District 103 N. Kona – the enumerator was Allen Wall the rancher
Dwelling 55 — Listed only as “Naluahine” he is found in a household listed as a Laborer of Odd Jobs with Wife Lucy KAUALE married 15 years as well as his father listed as “Kikeo” age 78 a widower and finally a female boarder named Makanoekalehua who is six years old born 1904.  [The boarder is likely to be Annie Makanoekalehua Kalaiwaa who later marries Keawe Alapai — She is the daughter of William Kameeiamoku Kalaiwaa, Jr. and Annie Kauanoe Kalaiwaa both born around 1880 – who I assume is Naluahine’s daughter.  William and Annie K. had a son also Alvin K. Kalaiwaa born 1902 died 1975.  However, a Geni.com family submitted tree lists her parents as Kamaka MAIHOKII and Kawalu KINI .]
On the same enumeration sheet 4 as Naluahine’s household, there are two households of note —
  1) Dwelling 45 — KAIPO , 88 years with wife MAKANOANOA 84 years – married 50 years, with granddaughter — “Kiawe” 14 years (b. 1896)  [which is my Great-Grandmother and her Maternal Grandparents — parents of her mom Mary Kalauwalu KAIPO who married KAUHANE.]
  2) Dwelling 54 – (the household right before Naluahine’s) lists a 29 year old public school teacher Julia K. (KY??) recorded as married 5 years with no children and a boarder “Kiawe Kauhane” 11 years old.  [was my Tutu lady enumerated twice and with a wrong age? Did she float between different households? and who is this teacher to her if it is indeed my Tutu Keawe?  (cause it might explain why she named my Grandmother Julia.)]
On the next sheet 5 – immediately following Naluahine’s household — in Dwelling 57 is Hawale – 35 year old Head of Household, his wife Kalehua 32 years, their daughter Kalihilihi 9years and their son Iokepa 4 years in addition to two boarders of note — Kuula Kahinu 22 years and a female Wahinepo Kahinu 18.
Further along on Sheet 10 there are two more households I noted:
 1) Sheet 10 Line 64 – a widowed 43 year old Korean Taro Planter named E. Enoka  [I thought this one was of interest since Enoka is part of Naluahine’s nephew Henry EP Kekahuna’s name.]
 2) Dwelling 70 – starting on Line 49 — Kalauwalu KAUHANE widow 50 years old with 4 children and a granddaughter in her household including son Lu Wo KAUHANE 27 years, son Joseph KAUHANE 25 years, daughter Nahinu KAUHANE a widow with no children 22 years, son Makahi KAUHANE 18 years and granddaughter Kaiula KAUHANE 2 years.  It is not clear to which of Mary Kalauwalu’s sons she belongs.  And we must remember that this household is of great significance since this is Violet Keawe Hii Ku O Kalai KAUHANE’s mother and older siblings.  In our tree we list alternately for first son — Luo Awo Kauhane. (A visit to the State Archives this past Friday revealed a very grimm end to her older brothers and eldest sister which followed suit to their father John Napua Kauhane.)

 


1920 Census of District 103 N. Kona
Naluahine Kaopua is listed with wife Lucy, nephew Kula (aka Kuula) Kahinu, and granddaughter Annie Kaopua. (aka Annie Makanoekalehua Kalaiwaa who later marries Keawe Alapai)

1930 Census – N. Kona/ N. Kohala
District 1-60 Rep District 2 Precinct – part of 7 —  Naluahine Ka‘opua is listed with wife Lucy with occupation as a cowboy on a cattle ranch.

1940 Census – N. Kona/ N. Kohala
District 1-69 Rep District 2  —  Naluahine Ka‘opua is listed with wife Lucy with occupation as a cowboy on a cattle ranch. {Note: the enumerator wrote the name as Naluhile Ka‘opuaPerhaps he’s slowing down as he reported only working 2 weeks in the prior year 1939.  Along with them are his “grandson” Keawe Alapai, 32 year old widower and his six children:  James 12 years, Ellen 11 years, Hazel 9 years, Elizabeth 5 years, Washington 4 years, and John 7months.  Keawe’s wife, Annie M. Kalaiwaa Alapai, passed in February that year just months prior to enumeration — and was buried at Puuanahulu Cemetery.  It is more likely that Keawe Alapai is a grandson-in-law.

Other Familial connections:
“Tutu Naluahine Ka‘opua B.1856-Make-1961 at 105 my GG.Grandpas Kewiki’s brother from Kahalu’u ,Kona” — Added by Peni Polena K.Fonseca-Aiwohi on June 18, 2010 at 3:08am Maoliworld.com  [reference to David Kewiki Spalding]
“(Great-greatgrandfather is) the only child to carry Keikiho‘okama Ka‘opua name which means to ‘inherent sovereignty’.” – informant Justin P. Asing Great-grandson of Naluahine’s brother Keikihookama Kaopua – October 2017.

[ Possible resource network ]

Aloha Flo,
David Roy, deceased, also shared stories of Ka‘aha‘aina‘akahaku with me in the 1970’s. I believe that Ka‘aha‘aina was very sociable in the Kona area; and the proximity of Kahalu’u to Keauhou makes us family (the dust of Ka’u). David shared that tutu was referred to as tutu Pele (out of fear); and that her red eyes, white-hair, and age contributed to this characterization by them (as children). As to the connection between Naluahine Ka‘opua you might contact (Google it) my cousin, Lily Ha‘ani‘o Kong (via a coffee retailer in Kona). At Kahalu‘u, I recall a name (Ah Moe, Aumoe – hapa pake’ wahine)…just above Kahalu‘u Bay, now Ali‘i Drive. My cousin, Lily, may have completed a book of stories (commissioned, I think, by Bishop Estate) of the area Keauhou to Kona (town). There’s a story of the cave connections where the young people met; and then, at the Keauhou Resort hotel next to Kahalu‘u Beach Park there are maps which identify some small kine thievery going on in that area — olden days.
I will be able to check some matters of genealogy (Kaumuali’i on my grandmother’s side which includes much family from Hilo to Kona).
Keep contact until then. Aloha wale no!


Lanai (AKA Kahinu) was the high priest of Pua-noni heiau and his brothers were Naihe (lived in Kohala) and Laa-nui (lived in Puu-makani, Kau). Lanai oldest, Naihe 2nd oldest, and Laa-nui yougnest were brothers from Maui at the request of Kamehameha. Lanai was over seven feet tall, a man of strength, very proficient in lua, and in battle.
Lanai was also knowned as Kahinu, because of his using the coconut oil over his body, and he was the special messenger for Kamehameha going after his personal garments and war implements. When Kamehameha died he took care of Kuakini. When Kuakini died he took care of his bones at Poo-Hawaii.
Lanai was Naluahine’s great-grandfater.
This information is contained in a letter from Henry Kekahuna to Charles Kenn in 1950.

Source: http://kanakagenealogy.wordpress.com/kanaka-stories/pololu-kohala-short-story/

Resources:

For more information about the Keauhou Historic District visit the Keauhou Kahalu‘u Heritage Center at the Keauhou Shopping Center, open daily from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.

Advertisements
%d bloggers like this: